Life Insurance

Life insurance or life assurance is a contract between the policy owner and the insurer, where the insurer agrees to pay a sum of money upon the occurrence of the insured individual's or individuals' death or other event, such as terminal illness or critical illness. In return, the policy owner agrees to pay a stipulated amount called a premium at regular intervals or in lump sums. There may be designs in some countries where bills and death expenses plus catering for after funeral expenses should be included in Policy Premium. In the United States, the predominant form simply specifies a lump sum to be paid on the insured's demise.

As with most insurance policies, life insurance is a contract between the insurer and the policy owner whereby a benefit is paid to the designated beneficiaries if an insured event occurs which is covered by the policy.

The value for the policyholder is derived, not from an actual claim event, rather it is the value derived from the 'peace of mind' experienced by the policyholder, due to the negating of adverse financial consequences caused by the death of the Life Assured.

What is Life insurance?

We know it's difficult to imagine a time when you won't be there to help provide for your family. That's why Farmers has developed a suite of Life insurance products* designed to help answer your Life insurance requirements, at any stage of life. Whether you're a new family, empty nester, business owner, or single parent, Farmers has a Life insurance option to suit your needs and budget.

Protecting Your Family:

By preparing in advance, you'll have the peace of mind that comes from knowing you're protecting your family's financial future. And since Life insurance benefits are generally not taxable at the federal level**, your loved ones can use the benefits to help take care of their living expenses in a variety of ways.

  • Any needs after the time of death, such as final illness expenses, burial costs and estate taxes.
  • Funds for a readjustment period, to finance a move, or to provide time for family members to find a job
  • Ongoing financial needs, such as monthly bills and expenses, daycare costs, college tuition or retirement
    Safeguarding Your Business

If you're a business owner or have business partners, it's important to prepare for the unexpected. Farmers offers several Life insurance products that are designed to help you, as a business owner, to make it possible for your heirs to help pay estate taxes and help sustain the business during a change in management, or to help provide funds in order to execute a buy-sell agreement between partners or stockholders.**

Contact a Farmers agent to learn more about how Life insurance can benefit you and your loved ones or beneficiaries.
Products and features may not be available in all states and may vary by state.*Life insurance issued by Farmers New World Life Insurance Company, Mercer Island, WA 98040**This document is for informational purposes only. You should consult your attorney, accountant, or tax advisor for legal or tax advice.

Life insurance of Australia

Welcome to AXA Australia

Starting out? Working hard? Wherever you are, a financial adviser will create a personal financial plan for tax effective investing, insurance, wealth creation, retirement and more.
Find and adviser
Finding an adviser made easy
AXA provides a referral service to qualified financial advisers who work with you to create the right “life plan” for where you are now and where you want to be. Once you complete our confidential Contact a Financial Adviser request you will be provided with a short list of industry registered AXA advisers suitably matched to your needs, not your post code. This helps align the best professional insights to your financial interests.
The Range of AXA Products

Know what financial services you are after? This page offers links to all AXA products within Investment, Superannuation and Insurance.No matter how far you are from retirement, your Super is your most important investment for income once you stop working. Be sure your Super is invested wisely for your age and income.
Australian Immigration and Visa Services
Prepare and lodge your visa application to Australia with the assistance of a qualified immigration advisor and Australia's most advanced application preparation system. Save thousands of dollars in traditional legal fees and take the first steps toward your new life in Australia.-->
Our award-winning systems help you prepare and lodge your own visa application aided by a qualified Immigration Advisor, saving thousands of dollars in legal fees.
Since 2001, over 80,000 people from almost 200 countries chose our services to maximise their chance of success.
Aiming for a new life for you and your family in Australia? Select the visa program that best meets your circumstances.
Employment in Australia
LIVE IN is dedicated to making immigration simple and stress-free. Finding a job is an important part of the journey and we have been working hard to find solutions that will give you an advantage in the employment market.
In partnership with LinkMe, an Australian career portal, we can provide you with access to Australia’s hidden job market through direct exposure to thousands of recruiters and employers.

LIVE IN’s Job Centre

1. fast and free registration
2. access resources and tools to help increase your job prospects
3. become part of a community and learn what it’s like to work in Australia

There is no guarantee of a job, however, you will gain an advantage against other overseas applicants in the Australian employment market, especially if you first take steps to secure a visa.

New York personal Injury

We will work hard to get you the compensation that you deserve.

We are dedicated to helping people who have been injured because of someone else’s mistake or negligence. Our New York personal injury attorneys regularly handle cases of all types where someone has been injured. These include construction accidents, scaffold and ladder accidents, car accidents, train accidents, injuries sustained as the result of a defective product or defective machine, lead poisoning and slips and falls. If you have been injured in any way as a result of someone else’s negligence, please contact us now. Our New York personal injury attorneys have been successfully helping our clients for over fifty years to get the money and help they deserve.

Contact Us

Federal agencies set safety standards for pilot conduct, flight operations, and aircraft manufacturers. Because of these safety standards, air travel is generally a safe means of transportation. However, when accidents do occur, they often result in death. The most common causes of airplane accidents include:

* pilot error;
* faulty equipment;
* violating Federal Aviation Administration regulations;
* structural or design problems;
* flight Service Station employees not performing their jobs well;
* federal Air Traffic Controllers mistakes; or
* someone's failure to choose the correct aircraft.
Figuring out who is responsible for airplane accidents can make these cases very complicated. Possible guilty parties may include negligent owners or operators of the plane, or the plane's manufacturer. Maybe the pilot or the crew of the airplane, or the air traffic controllers did not do their jobs correctly. We can help you find out who is responsible for the injury. You or a loved one may be entitled to compensation for:
* punitive damages;
* past and future medical expenses;
* emotional distress; and
* lost wages or lost earning capacity.

Millions of people ride public transportation in our city every day, trusting the transit authority to get them where they need to go safely. But when accidents happen and passengers or pedestrians are injured, injury victims must get the care and financial coverage they need to recover. We represent injury victims who have suffered accidents on a bus, subway or rail line in New York City and other areas of New York.
Injuries sustained in a subway or bus accident may be caused by:
* bus accidents ;
* slip and fall inside the bus or subway;
* tired operators;
* platform accidents;
* broken subway stairs or tunnels;
* inappropriate bus drop-offs;
* pothole at a bus stop;
* getting crushed or caught in the subway doors;
* subway fires;
* being dragged by a subway or bus;
* sudden stops on a subway or bus leading to injury;
* robbery or assault on a bus or subway;
* defective turnstiles;
* subways or busses that are not well-maintained; or
faulty equipment.
We also represent individuals in pedestrian injury claims when they have been hit by a bus or subway.
If you have been injured in an accident on a New York City bus or subway, you must file your notice of claim within ninety days of the subway or bus accident , otherwise your claim may be thrown out. Our Personal Injury Attorneys will act quickly to determine who is at fault and take every step necessary so that the liable parties are held responsible for your care, coverage, and compensation.


If you have been injured in an automobile accident, we can help. For over fifty years, we have represented victims of car, motorcycle, bus, taxi and other vehicle accidents. Our firm won the highest verdict in the United States for the death of a passenger in a car. If you have been injured as a passenger, driver or hit by a motor vehicle while walking, we can help you. Our firm’s attorneys and staff will take care of everything you need to collect payment for medical expenses, property damage and your personal injuries. We handle all the paperwork with the insurance companies, your doctors and take care of your No-Fault benefits. If you have an automobile case, we will start a lawsuit to get you the money you deserve and handle all of your legal needs after the accident.
Let us investigate to your accident. We can help you to determine whether or not you have a case and advise you on your options. If you can’t come to us, one of our New York car accident attorneys will come to your home or visit you at the hospital. Call Us. We can help.


Cruise ship lines have a responsibility to make sure that there are no dangerous conditions that could injure passengers. However, despite safety precautions, people can be seriously injured on cruise ships. For example: passengers can become ill if the ship is unsanitary or suffer a personal injury because of bad security and safety. Examples of cruise ship cases include:

* assault by crew members or other passengers;
* food poisoning;
* sexual battery;
* slip and falls;
* trip and falls; and
* injuries on outings.
Cruise Ship owners can be held legally responsible for negligence on a ship, like when a passenger gets hurt because of:

* bad ship maintenance;
* poorly-trained staff;
* old or broken equipment; or
* insufficient safety equipment.
Cruise ship owners can also be held liable for cruise ship accidents that are caused by insufficient safety equipment or emergency precautions. Victims of accidents on cruise ships may be entitled to compensation for medical bills, lost wages, and pain and suffering. Make sure that you read your ticket carefully for rules regarding potential lawsuit time constraints.

How to buy Car??

How to Buy a Car
­­­Have you ever dreamed of owning your own car? Imagine driving down a tree-lined ­street with the windows down on a sunny day, a warm rush of air streaming through your hair... OK, snap out of your reverie. Before you start mapping out the route to the nearest beach, you just might want to learn some valuable car-buying tips.
Buying a car, whether it's a first-time purchase or not, can seem like a daunting task. You've probably seen your share of car commercials on TV and recall hearing phrases like "down payment" and "APR." Although some of the terminology may seem confusing, once you break it down, buying a car is pretty straightforward. There is certainly a lot of information you need to understand before you run off to your local dealership. But once you know what the acronyms mean and how car financing works, you'll be ready to get the best possible price on the car you've chosen.

In this article, we will discuss used and new-car purchasing, what you need to know before you decide to buy, how to avoid common pitfalls, getting the best price and what to do if you have a problem with your purchase.
­The first thing you must decide before you begin your automobile research is whether you want a new car or a used car. Of course, there are benefits and drawbacks on both sides. If you decide to buy a used car, there are sev­eral things you need to keep in mind.

First of all, there are more than 2 million car accidents annually and chances are if you are in the market for a used car, you will come in contact with at least one automobile that was in an accident. The most important thing about buying a used car is that you know everything about the history of the car, including:

1. The number of previous owners
2. If the car was ever involved in an accident
3. Any previous mechanical problems
4. The maintenance history of the car
One of the largest benefits of buying a used car is that you can often get a great deal and in many cases, the car you buy may even be relatively new. Successful used car buyers often are just as happy with their used car as new car buyers are with a new vehicle. But remember, the most common car-buying horror stories do involve the purchase of used cars. When you have a good idea of what kind of car best fits your needs and budget, you can begin your research on used cars.

About Car Insurance

How Car Insurance Works

If you own your own car, you probably already know a little about car insurance. You may have heard the words deductible or premium. But, do you truly understand the different parts of an auto insurance policy and do you know how to choose the best coverage?
Forty-seven states require that you have at least some kind of car insurance, so it's a good idea to know what the law requires you to have and what additional or optional coverage will help to protect you in the event of an accident.
Before purchasing auto insurance, you must consider a variety of factors including what kind of car you have, your driving record and the amount of money you are willing to pay. Understanding the simple basics of auto insurance will make you confident that the car insurance policy you choose will take care of your needs in the event of an accident.
In this article, we will walk you through the types of coverage that insurance companies offer and discuss possible insurance needs. Additionally we will look at what affects the price of auto insurance, how to bring the costs down and how to understand the components of your policy.
Types of Coverage

Everyone who drives needs car insurance. In fact, most states require it by law. When you buy car insurance, you are buying what is called a policy. Your policy is based on a variety of factors including what kind of car you drive as well as what kind of insurance you want. Auto insurance policies are actually a package of different types of insurance coverage.
The first step in understanding an auto insurance policy is to learn the various types of coverage insurance companies offer. Some of this coverage may be required by your state and some of the coverage may be optional.

1. Liability -This coverage pays for accidental bodily injury and property damages to others. Injury damages include medical expenses, pain and suffering and lost wages. Property damage includes damaged property and automobiles. This coverage also pays defense and court costs. State laws determine how much liability coverage you must purchase, but you can always get more coverage than your state requires.

2. Collision -This coverage pays for damages to your vehicle caused by collision with another vehicle or object.

3. Comprehensive -This coverage pays for loss or damage to the insured vehicle that doesn't occur in an auto accident. The types of damages comprehensive insurance covers include loss caused by fire, wind, hail, flood, vandalism or theft.

4. Medical Coverage - Pays medical expenses regardless of fault when the expenses are caused by an auto accident.

5. PIP -Personal Injury Protection (PIP) is required in some states. This coverage pays medical expenses for the insured driver, regardless of fault, for treatment due to an auto accident.

6. Uninsured Motorist -Pays your car's damages when an auto accident is caused by a driver who doesn't have liability insurance

7. Underinsured Motorist -Pays your car's damages when an auto accident is caused by someone who has insufficient liability insurance.

8. Rental Reimbursement - This type of coverage will pay for a rental car if your car is damaged due to an auto accident. Often this coverage has a daily allowance for a rental car.

Many insurance policies combine a number of these types of coverage. The first step in choosing the insurance you want for your car is to know the laws in your state. This will tell you the minimum insurance you need for your car. It's good to keep in mind that, just because your state may not require extensive insurance, extra coverage may be worth the expense. After all, no one wants to be stuck with thousands of dollars worth of bills because of an auto accident.

student loans

Student loans
An education loan is a form of financial aid that must be repaid, with interest. (Scholarships, on the other hand, do not have to be repaid.)

Education loans come in three major categories: student loans (e.g., Stafford and Perkins loans), parent loans (e.g., PLUS loans) and private student loans (also called alternative student loans). A fourth type of education loan, the consolidation loan, allows the borrower to lump all of their loans into one loan for simplifiedz payment. A recent innovation is peer-to-peer education loans. Federal education loans are available in either the Direct Loan or federally-guaranteed student loan programs.

Federal law sets the maximum interest rates and fees that lenders may charge for federally-guaranteed loans. Nothing prevents a lender from charging lower fees. Many lenders offer a variety of student loan discounts to attract borrowers.

Few students can afford to pay for college without some form of education financing. Two-thirds (65.7%) of 4-year undergraduate students graduate with some debt, and the average student loan debt among graduating seniors is $19,237 (excluding PLUS Loans but including Stafford, Perkins, state, college and private loans), according to the 2003-2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS). (The median is $17,120. One quarter of undergraduate students borrow $24,936 or more, and one tenth borrow $35,213 or more.) For federal student loan debt (excluding PLUS Loans), the figures are 62.2% and $17,036. Average cumulative debt increases by about 3% or approximately $550 a year. When one includes PLUS loans in the total, the average cumulative debt incurred is $21,899. (Approximately one in ten (10.8%) parents borrow PLUS loans for their children's college education, with a cumulative PLUS loan debt of $16,317.)

Free Insurace Quotes Online

Personal Insurance
Comparing Insurance Quotes = Equals Saving

Compare Auto, Homeowner, Health Insurance Quotes
Everyone knows that insurance premiums can be affected by your credit history or perhaps a spotty driving record in the case of auto insurance. But few people realize that an insurance company's loss experience is one of the biggest factors for determining how much they will pay for coverage. How so? Well, say for example an insurance company paid out a large amount of homeowner insurance claims due to a particularly catastrophic year of floods and fire damage. The same insurance company may also provide auto insurance coverage. To compensate for the losses experienced under their home owner insurance division, they may raise premiums for their car insurance customers even if they had no accidents or tickets. Or, they could simply increase the insurance prices for house insurance policyholders in another state.
Insurance is a business, and like any other business it needs to generate profit. Monetary losses from an excessive amount of insurance claims are usually shifted to the consumer in the package of higher insurance premiums. If the insurance company had an extremely profitable year, they may lower rates to attract more customers and increase the number of policyholders they have. For this reason, insurance rates vary greatly from one company to another.
Health and life insurance rates are very low right now in this competitive insurance industry. However, some health and life insurance companies offer low initial rates to gain insurance customers and then gradually increase these teaser insurance rates over time. The best way to ensure you are getting the best price for your insurance needs is to review your policy rates regularly and compare them against what other competing insurance companies are offering. You can do this by requesting insurance quotes from multiple insurance companies.
Learn How to Get a Discount from Insurance Companies
Our learning center is dedicated to helping insurance consumers become educated on their insurance needs. Our library of educational material, insurance guides and coverage calculating tools will help you in a variety of insurance situations. The next time you have an accident or need to file an insurance claim you can be prepared. We'll also tell you about what to do when a claim is denied and your rights as a policyholder. You'll also learn how to understand your insurance policy and of course, there are many tips on how to save money on insurance.
Don't pay more for insurance than you have to. Take time to compare your current insurance rates with comparable coverage from other insurance competitors. It only takes a few minutes to select the type of coverage you are interested in, and you'll be on your way to comparing insurance quotes and saving money!

Google Adsense

What's google Adsense??
Google AdSense is the program that can give you advertising revenue from each page on your website—with a minimal investment in time and no additional resources.
AdSense delivers relevant text and image ads that are precisely targeted to your site and your site content. And when you add a Google search box to your site, AdSense delivers relevant text ads that are targeted to the Google search results pages generated by your visitors’ search request.

Earn more revenue
You can maximize your revenue potential by displaying Google ads on your website. Google puts relevant CPC (cost-per-click) and CPM (cost per thousand impressions) ads through the same auction, and lets them compete against one another. The auction takes place instantaneously, and, when it’s over, AdSense automatically displays the text or image ad(s) that will generate the maximum revenue for a page -- and the maximum revenue for you.
Customize AdSense for your site
You can customize the appearance of ads, choosing from a wide range of colors and templates. Ditto with your search results page. Your reports are customizable, too. Flexible reporting tools let you group your pages in any way you want so you can view your results by URL, domain, ad type, category and more to learn where your earnings are coming from. Custo... picture

See what our customers say
“Instead of spending money to hire an additional sales rep to sell ad banners, Google ads have become a virtual sales tool for us. Now we’re able to reap thousands of dollars in additional advertising revenue each month that we would very likely have missed without Google AdSense.”
- Robert Hoskins, Editor and Group Publisher, Broadband Wireless Exchange
“Google shows targeted ads reflecting the sorts of information and services SeatGuru visitors want. For a small business like mine, this is the best approach to advertising. You set it up easily, it automatically serves relevant ads, and it takes very little of my time.”
- Matt Daimler, Founder,
“At the beginning I was very concerned that I might lose traffic to competitors. I only used AdSense on a limited number of the site’s pages, and I watched the stats very carefully. If the traffic, pages per visitor, or conversion rates dropped I knew I could easily pull the ads...Since implementing AdSense, our ad revenue has increased more than tenfold, and 100 percent of my available inventory is now sold through AdSense.”
- Vik Kachoria, Entrepreneur, Real Adventure.

Apply now
You can run Google ads on all or just some of your pages, using AdSense strategically to complement your direct sales team. You'll pay nothing, spend little time on set-up, and have no maintenance worries. You can use AdSense for a day, a month or for however long it pleases you to make a profit-it's your choice.

google Affiliate

What is Google's affiliate auction policy?

We'll only display one ad per search query for advertisers sharing the same top-level domain in the display URL. This means that if you're an affiliate advertiser, your ad may not show for a query because another affiliate or the website that runs the affiliate program also has ads using the same (or a similar) domain in the display URL.

For example, for the domain ',' we would determine the following URLs and display URLs to be equivalent:
However, we'd determine the following display URLs to be distinct, since each has a different top-level domain:*
*Domains with a specific extension are considered distinct.
Also, your site shouldn't mirror (be similar or nearly identical to) your parent company's or another advertiser's site. Google won't show multiple ads for identical or similar landing pages at the same time. This means that if another advertiser's ad leads to a landing page that's similar to yours, and his keyword has a higher Ad Rank, his ad will show instead of yours.


Display URL
This is the URL displayed on your ad to identify your site to users. This URL displayed is limited to 35 characters; it need not be the same as the URL your ad links to, but it should be an actual URL that is part of your site.

Website domains are a naming procedure by which web users may identify a particular website address and location (e.g., They are usually made up of two parts: a name and a category. The following are common URL domain categories: .com (commercial), .edu (education), and .gov (government). Domain categories can also be location-specific, for example: .fr (France) , .br (Brazil), or .jp (Japan). In some cases, one category is appended to another category, for example:,,
What should I know as an affiliate advertiser?
We currently don't accept ads for data entry affiliate programs. If you're another type of affiliate, your AdWords account is completely distinct from your affiliate program.
The AdWords account of an affiliate is no different from any other AdWords account -- your account follows the same rules (such as billing process, cost, and policy guidelines) as all other AdWords accounts. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with Google's URL policy which affects many affiliates, and then browse or search the AdWords Help Center for answers to your AdWords account questions.
To help you get started, we've compiled some of the most common questions we receive from affiliate advertisers. One important thing to remember (as outlined in the 'Affiliate Performance' section below) is that there is stiff competition amongst affiliate advertisers, so you should pay special attention to the quality of your ads, keywords, and website in order to advertise effectively.
Basic Affiliate Questions
How is Google AdWords related to my affiliate company?
The Google AdWords program is separate from and unrelated to any third-party affiliate program. If you have an affiliate account with a third-party program, it will not be directly linked to your AdWords account. Similarly, your affiliate earnings and enrollment fees are separate from and unrelated to your AdWords fees and charges.
Where can I get my affiliate URL?
Your affiliate company should provide you a unique URL to use as your ad's destination URL. If you have questions about the URL that your affiliate company provided you, or if the URL does not work, please contact that company directly.

Payment & Billing

How do I receive my affiliate compensation?
Please know that AdWords does not pay advertisers, nor are we able to track your affiliate earnings. If you have questions regarding compensation or how your sales are tracked, please contact your affiliate company directly.
Google may be sticking its toes into Affiliate Programs. They apparently are calling these CPA (Cost Per Action) ads, but what that means is that publishers get paid not for clicks but for some specific action at an advertiser's site: buying something, providing information, whatever. That's an Affiliate Program, Google is just naming it something else.

Interestingly, this comes at the same time that eBay is murmuring about its own affiliate style thingy. What they intend to do is let sites like this run ads pointing at appropriate auctions. For example, we might run ads for auctions related to computer hardware, and would get paid if someone reading here clicked through and won the auction (or purchased a Buy It Now item).

Google Affiliate Programs

Google may be sticking its toes into Affiliate Programs. They apparently are calling these CPA (Cost Per Action) ads, but what that means is that publishers get paid not for clicks but for some specific action at an advertiser's site: buying something, providing information, whatever. That's an Affiliate Program, Google is just naming it something else.

Interestingly, this comes at the same time that eBay is murmuring about its own affiliate style thingy. What they intend to do is let sites like this run ads pointing at appropriate auctions. For example, we might run ads for auctions related to computer hardware, and would get paid if someone reading here clicked through and won the auction (or purchased a Buy It Now item).

Welcome to HY Affiliates

A world leading performance based financial markets affiliate program
Unlike forex only programs, HY Affiliates provides access to all major financial markets. These exciting markets include forex, metals such as gold and silver, equities/stocks, oil and gas, and commodities, making HY Affiliates Program the most diverse financial markets affiliate program on the market.
Today online financial markets such as forex, and equity/stocks, and commodities are one of the most highly transacted products on the Internet with millions of investors and participants. They include banks, brokers, traders and private individuals from all over the world. Get into the action NOW and receive consistent cash earnings.

Employee leasing

What si Employee Leasing ??

Smaller companies looking to expand their workforce may be comfortable with the technical side of the hiring process, but not the human resource side. Business owners often find themselves overwhelmed by all the payroll accounting, record keeping and benefits which accompany newly hired employees. One popular solution to this problem is the practice of employee leasing.

Employee leasing is similar to the process of hiring temporary workers, but the key difference is permanency. A company wishing to pursue employee leasing will first contact a professional employment organization (PEO) to discuss its particular employment needs. The PEO or other employment leasing company might set up an interview process for recruiting new staff, or might take responsibility for existing workers. The company can still participate in the hiring process, but any hired personnel will officially work for the employee leasing company.

For many employees, the switch from their original company to an employee leasing company is actually a better deal financially. Since a typical PEO handles a large number of employees from numerous companies, future health insurance and other benefits can be negotiated in bulk. A worker at a small electronics company can enjoy the same level of benefits as a worker in a massive automotive plant. Wages and performance reviews are under the auspices of the employee leasing organization, not the original companies.

Employers often pursue employee leasing options in order to eliminate the need for accountants and human resource managers. The employee leasing agency charges a fee in addition to the employees' wages, much like temporary employment agencies. This fee is often less than the cost of hiring human resource experts and payroll accountants. Because workers are not considered employees of the company in a legal sense, personal injuries and workers' compensation claims become the responsibility of the employee leasing agency.

Employee leasing is not a perfect solution for some companies, however. Since workers are not completely under the control of management, communications may become strained. Conflicts may have to be arbitrated by representatives of the employee leasing agency. Termination of non-productive workers may not be as simple as handing out pink slips. Certain union contracts actually prohibit the use of employee leasing agencies or PEOs in order to prevent companies from outsourcing their human resource departments.

Employee Leasing Licensure

An employee leasing company is a business, which by agreement and for a fee, places employees of a client company on the leasing company's payroll. In turn, the leasing company "leases" these employees back to their original employer, usually for an unlimited period of time.

In 1996, the Vermont Legislature passed a law (21 V.S.A. Secs. 1031-1043) to regulate the employee leasing industry. This law, which originated through an industry request for regulation of leasing companies requires the employee leasing companies doing business in Vermont to be licensed by the Vermont Department of Labor, which is the state department responsible for administering both the unemployment insurance and worker's compensation programs.

Regulation of the employee leasing industry was enacted in part as a response to some situations, most of which occurred outside of Vermont, where an employee leasing company went bankrupt after having collected from its clients money which was to be used to pay wages, benefits, worker compensation premiums and unemployment insurance contributions, but without first making those payments to the appropriate agencies. In those situations, the client companies bore the responsibility of paying those wages, premiums and taxes twice. The financial responsibility and bonding provisions of the employee leasing law are intended to reduce or eliminate the exposure of the client companies should their leasing company suddenly go out of business. By helping ensure that only stable employee leasing companies do business in the state, Vermont's employee leasing law provides protections to workers, client companies and the leasing industry itself. It also helps to ensure that the cost of unemployment insurance and workers' compensation is borne by the client company, and not spread amongst all other employers.

Employee leasing companies provide a number of valuable services to their clients. Typically, an employee leasing company will provide payroll services and assist companies in managing their human resources by providing employee manuals and other services, which are sometimes difficult for smaller companies to provide on their own. Better management of workplace safety can help control the cost of worker compensation. Improved hiring practices and experienced representation in unemployment insurance benefit and tax matters can help keep the cost of unemployment compensation down. Because leasing companies represent a number of employers, and therefore a larger pool of workers, the cost of benefits can sometimes be lowered. In some cases, client employers, which could not afford to provide certain benefits such as health insurance, find it affordable to do so when taking advantage of the buying power of an employee leasing company.

In order to maximize the advantages and minimize the risks of employee leasing, Vermont employers are encouraged to only utilize those services provided by a company licensed to do business in Vermont. A list of employee leasing companies licensed to do business in Vermont is maintained by the Vermont Department of Labor.

To become an Employee Leasing firm, you must complete an application and other required forms. Rules and Employer Leasing Licensing Requirements are also available.

Employee Leasing Companies- Final Rule


A. This regulation is issued by the Department of Labor pursuant to the authority vested in the Commissioner of Labor by 21 V.S.A. Section 1032.

B. This regulation applies to any person that transacts business in the state of Vermont as an employee leasing company. The regulation does not apply to temporary help companies as defined in 21 V.S.A. §1031(8) and section 2 below.

C. The purpose of this regulation is to establish rules which govern the licensing and regulated activities of employee leasing companies in the state of Vermont.


As used in this regulation:

"Applicant" means a person applying for a license or for a renewal of a license under this rule. 21 V.S.A. §1031(1).

"Client company" means a person who enters into an agreement with an employee leasing company to lease any or all of its regular employees. 21 V.S.A. §1031(3).

"Commissioner" means the commissioner of Labor or the commissioner's designee, 21 V.S.A. §1031(2), except where otherwise indicated.

"Controlling person" means an individual who is at least 18 years of age and has the authority to direct the management or policies of an employee leasing company or who is employed, appointed or authorized by an employee leasing company to enter into contractual relationships with client companies on the employee leasing company's behalf. 21 V.S.A. §1034.

"Employee leasing agreement" means an agreement, executed between an employee leasing company and a client company, pursuant to which an employee leasing company provides one or more individuals to perform services for a client company on an ongoing basis. 21 V.S.A. §1031(4).

"Employee leasing company" or "leasing company" means a person engaged in the business of providing individuals to perform ongoing services for an indefinite time period for client companies pursuant to one or more employee leasing agreements executed between the leasing company and the client company. "Employee leasing company" does not include labor organizations, or a temporary help company. 21 V.S.A. §1031(5).

"Financial responsibility" means the current and expected future condition of financial solvency sufficient to support a reasonable expectation that an employee leasing company can successfully conduct its business without jeopardizing the interests of the employees leased to the client company, client company or the public. 21 V.S.A. §1031(6).

"Licensee" means an employee leasing company licensed under this rule. 21 V.S.A. §1031(7).

"Temporary help company" means a person who hires its own employees and provides them to another business entity as temporary full or part-time personnel to provide services for a finite period of time in special or unusual situations such as employee absences, temporary skill shortages, seasonal workloads and special work assignments and projects. 21 V.S.A. §1031(8). Determination as to whether a company is an employee leasing company or a temporary help company must necessarily be made on a case by case basis. Factors to be considered include the agreement between the company and the client business, the number of persons provided to the client business(es), the length and type of service provided to the client business, and the employees' understanding as to whether they may be rotated periodically among different client businesses or are assigned to one client business unless fired. Typically a temporary help company hires individuals experienced in various fields who form a standby labor pool, which provides client businesses with temporary help to supplement the client's regular staff or to perform special services. The individual may or may not be available for fulltime work and may reject job assignments for any reason. The client company may not know what the individual is paid or whether the individual receives benefits.


A. No person shall engage in the business of employee leasing in Vermont unless the person is granted a license by the commissioner. 21 V.S.A. §1033.

B. An applicant shall file an application for licensure with the commissioner on a form approved by the commissioner accompanied by a one-time, non-refundable application fee of $100.00 and a licensing fee of $1,000.00. 21 V.S.A. §1033(b).

C. A license under this rule shall expire one year from the date shown on the license. At least 60 days before the expiration date of the license, a licensee shall file a renewal application accompanied by the licensing fee and documentation as required by this section. 21 V.S.A. §1033(c).

D. The applicant shall file the following, on forms, and in a manner, satisfactory to the Commissioner:

1) A list of all the controlling persons of the applicant, their biographical information, and an affidavit from each attesting to his or her good moral character and management competence.

2) Documentation that the applicant maintains a place of business in this state, or has designated an agent of service, domiciled in the state, if there are to be no more than 50 leased employees working in the state, and that the applicant is licensed, if required, in the applicant's state of domicile.

3) Certification that the applicant does not conduct a temporary help business through the same entity as the employee leasing business.

4) An agreement to maintain separate records for each client company; and file reports as required by this rule and law for each of its client companies.

5) An agreement to pay unemployment contributions and workers' compensation premiums based on the experience rating of each client company, provided that, for workers' compensation premiums, the client company has sufficient workers' compensation premium volume to be experience rated, otherwise the workers' compensation premiums shall be paid at the rate approved for an employer that cannot be experience rated, and provided that, for unemployment compensation contributions, the client company has sufficient experience to be experience rated, otherwise contributions shall be paid at the applicable new employer rate.

6) An acknowledgment of the applicant's joint and several liability with its client companies for protections required by or damages due under laws designed to protect the health, safety or welfare of an individual leased to a client company.

7) Evidence of financial responsibility in accordance with this rule.

8) An agreement that the commissioner of Labor may liquidate any securities or bond, provided pursuant to this rule, upon default by the applicant in the payment of wages, benefits, workers' compensation premiums, awards or unemployment compensation contributions, in order to use the funds to pay the same.

9) Such additional information as the commissioner determines is necessary to evaluate the application.

See, 21 V.S.A. §1033(b)(1-8).

E. The applicant shall acquire and maintain an initial surety bond or letter of credit for the benefit of the commissioner in the amount of $100,000. A copy of the executed bond or letter of credit shall be filed with the commissioner at the time of application for a license. For each subsequent year of licensing, the applicant must file and maintain a surety bond or letter of credit to the benefit of the commissioner equal to not less than 5% of the prior year's total Vermont wages, benefits, workers' compensation premiums or awards or unemployment compensation contributions, but not less than $100,000 or such other amount as the commissioner may require. See 21 V.S.A. §1033(b)(7); 21 V.S.A. §1035(a).

1) An employee leasing company shall not require a client company to contribute in any manner to payment of the securities or bond required under this subsection.

2) The commissioner may waive the bonding or security requirement if the applicant demonstrates that it is accredited by a national accrediting entity that has been approved by the commissioner.

3) Notice of cancellation or non renewal of the surety bond or letter of credit shall be provided to the commissioner in writing at least 45 days prior to the cancellation or non renewal.

F. The commissioner may reject an application for license:

1) where the application is not fully completed, properly executed or is otherwise deficient;

2) where any fee required by this section is not submitted;

3) where the applicant has had an employee leasing company license revoked in this or any other state, unless such revocation has been subsequently rescinded or otherwise suspended and the problems remedied to the satisfaction of the commissioner.

4) where the applicant has made a material misrepresentation in the application.

5) Conviction of a felony or any misdemeanor involving moral turpitude.

6) If in the conduct of the applicant's or any controlling person's affairs, the applicant or any controlling person has used fraudulent, coercive, or dishonest practices or shown himself or herself to be incompetent, untrustworthy, or financially irresponsible.

G. The records relating to all employee leasing agreements shall be maintained by the licensee for a period of four years after termination of the employee leasing agreement and shall be available to the commissioner for inspection and copying during normal business hours.

H. A licensed employee leasing company shall within 10 days of initiation or termination of an employee leasing agreement notify in writing the commissioner, the commissioner of the department of employment and training and its workers' compensation insurance carrier of the initiation or termination.

1) The initiation notice, required under this sub-section, shall include an acknowledgment by the client company of its joint and several liability for protection or damages provided under laws designed to protect the health, safety and welfare of an employee, as provided for under section 6 (B).

I. A license issued to any person under this rule may not be transferred or assigned, and a licensee may not operate under any other name other than that specified in the application, without having received the prior written consent of the commissioner.


A. Evidence of financial responsibility under this rule shall include an audited financial statement, prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, that demonstrates that the applicant has an adjusted net worth of at least $100,000.00 or five percent of the prior year's total Vermont wages, benefits, workers' compensation premiums or awards or unemployment compensation contributions, whichever is greater.

1) The financial statement shall have been prepared within six months of the date of application by an independent certified public accountant licensed in this state. 21 V.S.A. §1035(a).

B. The commissioner may audit a licensee's financial condition if the commissioner determines that the licensee's financial responsibility is in question. The commissioner may contract for the audit and charge the licensee a fee that shall not exceed the actual cost of performing the audit. 21 V.S.A. §1035(b).

C. Financial information submitted to the commissioner by an applicant or licensee shall be confidential and shall not be available for public inspection. Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict the commissioner from sharing this information with the attorney general, the department of banking, insurance, and securities, the Department of Labor, the Department of Taxes, the Secretary of State or the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.


A licensee shall:

A. Within ten days after licensure under this rule, register with the following:

1) The Department of Labor;

2) The Department of Taxes;

3) The Secretary of State; and

4) The U.S. Internal Revenue Service.

B. Make timely payment of workers' compensation premiums and unemployment compensation contributions on all leased employees based on the experience rating of the client company to which the employees are leased.

C. File all reports as required by this rule, and applicable law.

D. Maintain financial responsibility and management competence.

E. Provide written notification of the employment arrangement to all employees leased pursuant to an employee leasing agreement within ten days after executing the agreement.

F. Keep any surety bond or letter of credit in effect or retain accreditation, whichever was provided pursuant to this rule, during the period the license is valid.

G. Implement an employee grievance system and provide to each leased employee at the time of hiring a manual that outlines the terms and conditions of employment, including the applicable grievance system. The manual should also state that the employee leasing company is subject to licensing regulations, which will be provided to the employee by the Department of Labor and Industry upon request.

H. Enter into a written employee leasing agreement with each client company.

See, 21 V.S.A. §1036.


A. Except as otherwise provided for in this rule or in chapter 12 of Title 21, an employee leasing company licensed under this chapter shall be deemed to be the employer for the payment of wages and other employment benefits due to leased employees pursuant to the employee leasing agreement. 21 V.S.A. §1036(b).

B. An employee leasing company and the client company shall be jointly and severally liable for protection or damages provided under laws designed to protect the health, safety and welfare of an employee. 21 V.S.A. §1039(c).


A. Workers' compensation insurance premiums shall be determined and paid based on the experience rating of the client company for which the leased employee performs services, provided the client company has sufficient workers' compensation premium volume to be experience rated, otherwise the premiums shall be at the rate approved for an employer that cannot be experience rated. 21 V.S.A. §1037(a).

B. The employee leasing company shall maintain separate payroll records and separate records of work-related injuries and illnesses for each client company and for the employee leasing company's nonleased employees.

C. Consistent with the provisions of 21 V.S.A. §687, the client company is responsible for providing workers compensation insurance for the client company's non-leased employees.

D. A workers' compensation insurer shall notify the commissioner and the client company no later than 30 days prior to any failure to renew by the insured, or any request by the insured to terminate, the workers' compensation coverage for the client company's leased employees. 21 V.S.A. §1037(c).

E. Both the employee leasing company and its client company shall be entitled to the exclusivity of remedy provisions of 21 V.S.A. 622 provided that workers' compensation coverage is in effect. 21 V.S.A. §1037(b).


A. For this section, "commissioner" means the commissioner of Labor, or the commissioner's designee, and "department" means the Department of Labor.

B. Unemployment compensation benefits shall be charged against the experience rating record of the applicable client company in accordance with the provisions of 21 V.S.A. §1325.

C. Wage and Contribution reports shall be filed quarterly, and under the seven digit account number assigned by the department, for each client company and contributions shall be paid quarterly on the taxable wages paid by each client company during the preceding calendar quarter at the tax rate assigned by the department to that client company.

D. The commissioner may require an employee leasing company to make weekly contribution payments.

E. The department shall notify both the client company and the employee leasing company of:

1) Benefits charged against the experience rating record of the client company.

2) The contribution rate of the client company based on its status and experience as an employer.

F. An employee leasing company shall register with the department on a form provided by the commissioner and shall file the following with the commissioner:

1) A copy of each employee leasing agreement within ten days after the agreement is executed and notice within ten days after an agreement is terminated.

2) On or before December 31 of each year, or whenever the commissioner shall deem to be reasonably necessary for the proper and efficient administration of the unemployment insurance program, a list of each client company, including the client company's name, address, seven digit state employer account number, as assigned by the department, and federal employer identification number.

G. Each employee leasing firm must, on behalf of each client company, maintain true and accurate records covering each person leased by each client company respecting employment, wages, hours, unemployment and related matters as the commissioner deems reasonably necessary for the effective administration of the unemployment insurance program. Such records shall be available to the commissioner for inspection and copying during normal business hours.


A. An employee leasing company that offers employee benefit and welfare plans shall offer comparable benefits to each client company, but is not required to provide comparable benefits to leased employees of different client companies.

B. An employee leasing company that provides health insurance benefits to its leased employees shall provide those benefits only pursuant to one of the following:

1) An insurance policy issued under chapter 107 of Title 8 by an insurer or entity authorized to do business by the commissioner of banking, insurance, and securities.

2) A plan that has been qualified as a single employer plan under the provisions of the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), as amended.


A. For purposes of the collective bargaining process, including the right to organize employee units based upon specific work sites, an employee leasing company shall be bound by law and liable for any violations of a collective bargaining agreement covering any of its leased employees. An employee leasing company shall not reassign leased employees or take any other action for the purpose of interfering with the terms and conditions of any collective bargaining agreement or organizational activity. 21 V.S.A. §1040.

B. Nothing in this rule shall be construed to relieve a client company of its obligations under any applicable law or to reduce or diminish any rights of leased employees to organize or collectively bargain.


A. The commissioner may revoke, suspend, restrict or place on probation the license of any employee leasing company for a violation of any provision of this rule, for unprofessional conduct or for a violation of any law relating to the conduct of the business of employee leasing. Unprofessional conduct includes:

1) Failure to maintain financial responsibility and management competence.

2) Occupational advertising that is intended or tends to deceive the public.

3) Failure to comply with substantial provisions of state or federal law governing the conduct of an employee leasing company.

4) Conviction of a crime related to the conduct of the business of employee leasing by a controlling person of a licensee.

5) Failure to promptly pay all wages, benefits, workers' compensation premiums or awards or unemployment compensation contributions.

B. Before the commissioner shall revoke, suspend, restrict or place on probation the license of any employee leasing company, the licensee shall be entitled to notice and an opportunity to be heard in accordance with 3 V.S.A. Chapter 25.

C. The commissioner may charge the licensee the actual cost of any investigation undertaken at the direction of the commissioner in response to any complaint filed against the licensee.

D. A person may appeal an action taken by the commissioner under this section to the superior court.

E. Any person who conducts the business of employee leasing or holds themselves out as an employee leasing company without being licensed under this chapter shall be fined not more than $15,000.00.

Wireless network

Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires.Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented with some type of remote information transmission system that uses electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, for the carrier and this implementation usually takes place at the physical level or "layer" of the network.

Types of Wireless

Wireless PAN
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) is a type of wireless network that interconnects devices within a relatively small area, generally within reach of a person. For example, Bluetooth provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop. ZigBee also supports WPAN applications

Wireless LAN
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a wireless alternative to a computer Local Area Network (LAN) that uses radio instead of wires to transmit data back and forth between computers in a small area such as a home, office, or school. Wireless LANs are standardized under the IEEE 802.11 series.

1. Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi is a commonly used wireless network in computer systems to enable connection to the internet or other devices that have Wi-Fi functionalities. Wi-Fi networks broadcast radio waves that can be picked up by Wi-Fi receivers attached to different computers or mobile phones.
2. Fixed Wireless Data: This implements point to point links between computers or networks at two locations, often using dedicated microwave or laser beams over line of sight paths. It is often used in cities to connect networks in two or more buildings without physically wiring the buildings together.

Wirless MAN

Wireless Metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several Wireless LANs.
1. WiMAX is the term used to refer to wireless MANs and is covered in IEEE 802.16d/802.16e.

Mobile devices networks
In recent decades with the development of smart phones, cellular telephone networks have been used to carry computer data in addition to telephone conversations:

1. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system. The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones.
2. Personal Communications Service (PCS): PCS is a radio band that can be used by mobile phones in North America. Sprint happened to be the first service to set up a PCS.
3. D-AMPS: D-AMPS, which stands for Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service, is an upgraded version of AMPS but it is being phased out due to advancement in technology. The newer GSM networks are replacing the older system.


Wireless networks have had a significant impact on the world as far back as World War II. Through the use of wireless networks, information could be sent overseas or behind enemy lines easily, efficiently and more reliably. Since then, wireless networks have continued to develop and their uses have grown significantly. Cellular phones are part of huge wireless network systems. People use these phones daily to communicate with one another. Sending information overseas is possible through wireless network systems using satellites and other signals to communicate across the world. Emergency services such as the police department utilize wireless networks to communicate important information quickly. People and businesses use wireless networks to send and share data quickly whether it be in a small office building or across the world.[5]

Another important use for wireless networks is as an inexpensive and rapid way to be connected to the Internet in countries and regions where the telecom infrastructure is poor or there is a lack of resources, as in most developing countries.

Compatibility issues also arise when dealing with wireless networks. Different components not made by the same company may not work together, or might require extra work to fix these issues. Wireless networks are typically slower than those that are directly connected through an Ethernet cable.

A wireless network is more vulnerable, because anyone can try to break into a network broadcasting a signal. Many networks offer WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy - security systems which have been found to be vulnerable to intrusion. Though WEP does block some intruders, the security problems have caused some businesses to stick with wired networks until security can be improved. Another type of security for wireless networks is WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access. WPA provides more security to wireless networks than a WEP security set up. The use of firewalls will help with security breaches which can help to fix security problems in some wireless networks that are more vulnerable.